Author Archives: yoavperlman

New publication: Guide to the sex and age of European ducks

By Jean-Baptiste Mouronval (ONCFS), Matthieu Guillemain (ONCFS) and Richard Hearn (WWT)

Nice to see this new high-quality publication by the Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage (French National Office of Hunting and Wildlife) in its English version on the Duck Specialist Group website.

ducks

I had only a quick look through it, and it looks great. Nice intro with generic ageing and sexing features, and then detailed species accounts for most common European duck species.

tails

Gadwall

Very useful reference for ringers and for field birders too.

The guide can be downloaded here.

Citation: Mouronval, J.B. 2016. Guide to the sex and age of European ducks. Office national de la chasse et de la faune sauvage, Paris – 124 pages.

Northern adult female. September. Cataluña. Photo by Eio Ramon. Pp 4-5 and rr 1 have been replaced, typical moult sequence for migrant females.

Identification of northern Peregrine Falcons in the Iberian Peninsula

By Àlex Ollé and Víctor Estrada-Devesa

Across most of the Iberian Peninsula, the local breeding Peregrine ssp is brookei. In the northern third of the peninsula, birds with phenotype very close to Central European birds are found. This is an integrade zone between peregrinus and brookei (Zuberogoitia et al., 2008).

From mid September to May, the local and sedentary brookei population in Iberia is reinforced with northern birds, originating from boreal and arctic areas in north and east Fennoscandia, that migrate through or winter in Iberia. Based on information from tagged birds and ringing recoveries, it seems that northern individuals wintering in Iberia originate mainly from northern Finland, an integrade zone between peregrine and calidus. Possibly Iberia also receives birds originating from arctic Russia, where pure calidus breed. In Catalonia –NE Iberian Peninsula, the wintering population is estimated at around 50 birds (Ollé, Estrada-Devesa & Gil, 2016).

In this post, we will try to add some interesting insights on the separation of brookei from northern birds (calidus or peregrinus/calidus integrades), mostly adults, based on our local experience in winter and on migration. We also present some interesting variation within brookei.

Moult 

In adult birds, moult of flight feathers (mainly primaries) is the key feature to differentiate northern birds from local brookei. In Spain, brookei start laying eggs between late February and early March. Females start moulting earlier than males, in April-May. Males end their moult in October, a moult strategy completely different from northern birds. In September, when the first northern birds arrive back on their wintering grounds, they are in a less advanced moult stage, with only 2-4 central primaries moulted. Moult stage of Nordic birds may depend on egg-laying dates and on their breeding success, with early breeders of failed breeders arriving to Iberia with more advanced moult. Also northern birds show sexual differences in moult. In Catalonia we have noticed that females end their moult at the end of December, while latest males end their moult in April. On average, northern birds moult P10 (the last primary to be moulted) during the second half of February, though we found few individuals that were still growing P10 in April.

Northern adult female. September. Cataluña. Photo by Eio Ramon. Pp 4-5 and rr 1 have been replaced, typical moult sequence for migrant females.

1. Northern adult female. September. Cataluña. Photo by Eio Ramon. Pp 4-5 and rr 1 have been replaced, typical moult sequence for migrant females.

2a

Northern female, adult. January. Cataluña. Photo by Camilo Albert. This bird has old pp9-10, pp 1-2 missing, ss1-2 and other inner ss old and ss3 growing; typical molt sequence of a northern Peregrine.

2 & 3. Northern female, adult. January. Cataluña. Photos by Camilo Albert. This bird has old pp9-10, pp 1-2 missing, ss1-2 and other inner ss old and ss3 growing; typical molt sequence of a northern Peregrine.

Northern adult male. March. Cataluña. Photo by Arnau Soler. Note growing p10. Facial and body patterns typical of a northern bird.

4. Northern adult male. March. Cataluña. Photo by Arnau Soler. Note growing p10. Facial and body patterns typical of a northern bird.

Adult female brookei. May. Cataluña. Photo by Jordi Bermejo. Breeding bird with active moult. Pp4-5 already replaced, together with primary coverts, while s5 is growing.

5. Adult female brookei. May. Cataluña. Photo by Jordi Bermejo. Breeding bird with active moult. Pp4-5 already replaced, together with primary coverts, while s5 is growing.

Adult male brookei . October. Cataluña. Photo by Àlex Ollé. Typical resident brookei with p10 finalizing the early moult

6. Adult male brookei . October. Cataluña. Photo by Àlex Ollé. Typical resident brookei with p10 finalizing the early moult. Note also heavy barring on underparts, thick-based moustachial stripe and limited pale ear coverts.

Facial pattern

Moustachial stripe of northern birds is usually narrower, more pointed and more contrasting than brookei, especially at the base. Ear coverts are very white, almost up to eye level (photos 2, 3, 4, 8 and 7). Some birds can show wider and less contrasting moustachial stripe, but in no case blurred as in brookei (photo 1). The crown is normally pale grey, sometimes with a paler forehead (photos 4, 7 and 15). Conversely, brookei usually show a very wide-based moustachial stripe that links with less contrasting ear coverts, and a uniform dark crown (photos 6, 12, 13 and 16).

Body colours and patterns

Northern birds show a clear white upper breast, normally unmarked. The central breast and upper belly have irregular horizontal bars with little dark spots, that can reach down to the central belly area (photos 1, 2, 4, 13 and 7). Flanks show more regular stripes, but thinner. There is a clear sexual difference in this pattern: males have thinner and irregular markings, while females markings are wider and better pronounced. Base colour is a light and variable pale rosy tone (photos 2 and 13), especially in the central belly.

In brookei the base colour is salmon or cream, though in some individuals, mostly males, it is more restricted to the breast only (photos 6, 9 and 14). In brookei the upper breast usually has small dark spots, especially in females, that are followed by broader and regular horizontal bars, both in the central area and in the flanks (photo 6 and 9).

9. Northern male . April. Catalonia. Photo by Marcel Gil. Typical bird, with clear upper breast and central breast with thin and irregular barring. Note the rose tones to the central belly. Pointed moustachial stripe and very white cheeks.

7. Northern male . April. Catalonia. Photo by Marcel Gil. Typical bird, with clear upper breast and central breast with thin and irregular barring. Note the rose tones to the central belly. Pointed moustachial stripe and very white cheeks.

10. Northern adult female. February. Catalunia. Photo by Víctor Estrada-Devesa. This bird follows is still in active moult in late February, with r5 and p9 still growing and p10 is old. Moult ends in late March or early April. Besides that moult sequence, the bird shows a peregrinus phenotype, probably from boreal northern Fennoscandia. These birds, especially females, have dense and spotted/stripped pattern to underparts. They are separated from brookei by an active moult in winter, they are bigger and have a different head pattern.

8. Northern adult female. February. Catalunia. Photo by Víctor Estrada-Devesa. This bird follows is still in active moult in late February, with r5 and p9 still growing and p10 is old. Moult ends in late March or early April. Besides that moult sequence, the bird shows a peregrinus phenotype, probably from boreal northern Fennoscandia. These birds, especially females, have dense and spotted/stripped pattern to underparts. They are separated from brookei by an active moult in winter, they are bigger and have a different head pattern.

12. Brookei adult female. November. Catalonia. Photo by Miguel Ángel Fuentes. Typical bird, with dense and extensive barring. Upper breats with some small dark spots. Wide moustachial stripe without clear cheeks. Moult already finished.

9. Adult female brookei. November. Catalonia. Photo by Miguel Ángel Fuentes. Typical bird, with dense and extensive barring. Upper breats with some small dark spots. Wide moustachial stripe without clear cheeks. Moult already completed.

Mantle tones

As mentioned above, males are on average paler than females. Northern birds are often paler blueish above, sometimes rather bright depending on light conditions.

15. Northern adult male. March. Catalonia. Photo by Jordi Martí-Aledo. The bluish tone, almost unbarred, is a key feature of northern males. p10 is very fresh, indicating that it was recently replaced.

10. Northern adult male. March. Catalonia. Photo by Jordi Martí-Aledo. The bluish tone, almost unbarred, is a key feature of northern males. p10 is very fresh, indicating that it was recently replaced.

16. Adult brookei. Catalonia. Photo by Àlex Ollé. Dark mantle, slightly paler in the lower back, heavily barred above. Note typical head pattern.

11. Adult brookei. Catalonia. Photo by Àlex Ollé. Dark mantle, slightly paler in the lower back, heavily barred above. Note typical head pattern.

Behaviour and hunting 

Northern birds are often more human-tolerant than local brookei, sometimes even at very close distances (see attached video). 

We found that northern birds often sit on the ground, much more than local brookei, that does not often land on the ground. 

Northern birds are larger and heavier on avergae, and they prey on larger birds, including herons and ducks. Most often local brookei prey on pigeon-sized birds or smaller.

Young ‘Arctic Peregrines’

We believe that some birds wintering in Iberia are ‘Arctic Peregrines’ (calidus). They are huge! Young birds are very brown from above, and often heavily marked below.

7. Apparent northern female, 2cy. January 2016. Catalonia. Photo by Víctor Estrada-Devesa. Possibly an arctic bird, typically brown from above. It was trapped and seen again next winter (see next photo).

12. Apparent northern female, 2cy. January 2016. Catalonia. Photo by Víctor Estrada-Devesa. Possibly an arctic bird, typically brown from above. It was trapped and seen again next winter (see next photo).

8. Northern female, 2cy. November 2016. Catalunia. Photo by Joan Goy. The same bird in the above photo. Thin moustachial stripe and clear ear coverts, clear rose tone to the breast. This bird had a moult stage atypical of northern birds: p1-p9 already moulted and p10 growing. It is possible that this bird (2cy) did not breed, which may explain the early moult.

13. Northern female, 2cy. November 2016. Catalunia. Photo by Joan Goy. The same bird in the above photo. Thin moustachial stripe and clear ear coverts, clear rose tone to the breast. This bird had a moult stage atypical of northern birds: p1-p9 already moulted and p10 growing. It is possible that this bird (2cy) did not breed, which may explain the early moult. Note that young calidus often show very dark coverts, confusingly similar to Lanner and Saker.

Variation in adult brookei

Over the years we have noted some brookei that show features closer to northern birds (peregrinus / calidus). Without full study of all features including moult, they may be misidentified. More study is needed on the amount of variation in brookei.

13. Adult male brookei. February. Alicante, Spain. Photo by Jorge García. Typical brookei head pattern. Breast pattern is reminiscent of northern birds. These features are usually associated with mature birds.

14. Adult male brookei. February. Alicante, Spain. Photo by Jorge García. Typical brookei head pattern. Breast pattern is reminiscent of northern birds. These features are usually associated with mature birds.

14. Adult male brookei . May. Catalonia. Photo by Gabriel de Jesús. This breeding male could be mistaken as a northern bird if seen in winter. It has a grey crown and a pale forehead. Cheeks are White. Underparts barring is irregular, with a light cream base color to the belly rather than to the breast. Nevertheless, it has some typical iberian features: short moustachial stripe with a wide base, striped breast, and cream base color rather than rosy.

15. Adult male brookei . May. Catalonia. Photo by Gabriel de Jesús. This breeding male could be mistaken as a northern bird if seen in winter. It has a grey crown and a pale forehead. Cheeks are White. Underparts barring is irregular, with a light cream base color to the belly rather than to the breast. Nevertheless, it has some typical iberian features: short moustachial stripe with a wide base, striped breast, and cream base color rather than rosy.

 

Acknowledgments 

We thank all the photographers for allowing us to use their photos.

 References 

Ollé. À., Estrada-Devesa, V. & Gil-Velasco, M. 2016. Els falcons d’origen nòrdic Falco peregrinus peregrinus i Falco peregrinus calidus: dues formes força descconegudes a Catalunya. Butlletí del CAC 1: 11-25.

Zuberogoitia, Í., Azkona, A., Zabala, J., Astorkia, L., Castillo, I., Iraeta, A., Martínez, J.A. & Martínez, J.E. 2008. Phenotypic variations of Peregrine Falcon in subspecies distribution border. In: Sielicki, J. & Mizera, T. (Eds.). Peregrine Falcon populations –status and perspectives in the 21st century-. Pp. 295-308. European Peregrine Falcon Working Group.

 

 

 

 

Putative Steppe Whimbrel in Austria

A Whimbrel showing the characteristics of Steppe Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus alboaxillaris in the Seewinkel, Austria, April 2017

By Johannes Laber & Gary Allport

In the course of a waterfowl survey on 22nd April 2017 in a meadow north-east of the Lange Lacke, Seewinkel, Austria, JL found a loose group of 25 Whimbrels. Amongst them was a slightly larger and brighter individual. Having recently become aware of the Whimbrel subspecies rogachevae and alboaxillaris (see previous Birding Frontiers post from 2016, Allport & Cohen 2016, Allport 2017) the bird was studied carefully.

In flight the striking pure white axillaries and underwings were seen, as well as a whiter rump and tail. The next day, Ernst Albegger was informed of the observation, which led to photographers looking for the bird and successfully securing some good photos.

Photos by Richard Katzinger (flight shots), Wolfgang Trimmel and Heinz Kolland (pictures of the standing bird) show many features of the subspecies alboaxillaris.  The photographers are warmly thanked for their efforts to capture these images and the use of the photos in this blog post.

On the ground the bird appeared larger-bodied than adjacent phaeopus, and the overall paler coloration was evident due to the larger and coarser pale spots on the upper side as well as the reduced flank barring.  The bird also has a paler face than adjacent nominate phaeopus, with notably paler cheeks, nape and supercilium. In addition, it appeared more dumpy or “potbellied” in shape.  Note that the bird is relatively short-billed and so is probably a male, making the size contrast even more significant.  Male Numeniini are smaller than females, some very markedly so in certain species, but amongst Whimbrel taxa sexual dimorphism is thought to be least prominent in Steppe Whimbrel.

Candidate Steppe Whimbrel N. p alboaxillaris (right) and nominate Whimbrel N. p. phaeopus (left). Note impression of larger size and more bulky body, and overall pale colouration. Photo: W. Trimmel, 23rd April 2017, Seewinkel, Austria

Candidate Steppe Whimbrel N. p alboaxillaris (right) and nominate Whimbrel N. p. phaeopus (left). Note impression of larger size and more bulky body, and overall pale colouration. Photo: W. Trimmel, 23rd April 2017, Seewinkel, Austria

Unfortunately there are no detailed photos of the complete vent and undertail area but it looks to be pure white insofar as can be seen in the images. The primary projection is difficult to judge from the photos but appears not to extend notably beyond the tail – as in the bird thought to be a female in Maputo – but is similar to the male bird in Maputo (DNA analysis has now confirmed the suspicion that that bird was a male).

Candidate Steppe Whimbrel N. p alboaxillaris (right and excerpted below) and nominate Whimbrel N. p. phaeopus (left). Note larger size and more bulky body, and overall pale colouration especially the pale face. Photo: H. Kolland, 23rd April 2017, Seewinkel, Austria.

Candidate Steppe Whimbrel N. p alboaxillaris (right and excerpted below) and nominate Whimbrel N. p. phaeopus (left). Note larger size and more bulky body, and overall pale colouration especially the pale face. Photo: H. Kolland, 23rd April 2017, Seewinkel, Austria.

Note that the very small area of visible tail edge in the photo below appears to show the correct ‘laddered’ pattern for Steppe Whimbrel, but it is the pattern of the whole tail span that is critical for sub-specific identification so, whilst this is consistent with Steppe Whimbrel it is not sufficient to fully support the identification.

Comparison of candidate Steppe Whimbrel N. p alboaxillaris (left) in Seewinkel (Photo by H. Kolland, 23rd April 2017) and male Steppe Whimbrel N. p. alboaxillaris (right) in Maputo, Mozambique (Photo G. Allport Feb 2016). Note very similar bill structure (suggesting that the Austrian bird is a male), near identical face pattern, overall plumage tone and primary projection. The Maputo bird has less barring on the flanks.

Comparison of candidate Steppe Whimbrel N. p alboaxillaris (left) in Seewinkel (Photo by H. Kolland, 23rd April 2017) and male Steppe Whimbrel N. p. alboaxillaris (right) in Maputo, Mozambique (Photo G. Allport Feb 2016). Note very similar bill structure (suggesting that the Austrian bird is a male), near identical face pattern, overall plumage tone and primary projection. The Maputo bird has less barring on the flanks.

In flight the bird shows a clear very pale underwing.  Unfortunately the quality of the images are not good enough to be absolutely sure of the detailed axillary and underwing pattern but the characters look strongly consistent with alboaxillaris showing an apparently unbarred clean white underwing, grey-barred underwing primary coverts and contrasting dark wings tips (which ironically tend to show up more clearly in poor quality images of alboaxillaris).  The rump looks to be very pale but again the images are not clear enough for detailed analysis.

4b

Two flight shots of candidate Steppe Whimbrel N. p. alboaxillaris showing clean white underwing and barred inner primaries. Note that photos on the ground suggest that there is flank barring present but this is not evident in the underwing shot suggesting that some detail may have been blown-out in the shots. Photographing the underwings of Whimbrel is challenging! Photo: R. Katzinger, 23rd April 2017, Seewinkel, Austria.

Two flight shots of candidate Steppe Whimbrel N. p. alboaxillaris showing clean white underwing and barred inner primaries. Note that photos on the ground suggest that there is flank barring present but this is not evident in the underwing shot suggesting that some detail may have been blown-out in the shots. Photographing the underwings of Whimbrel is challenging! Photo: R. Katzinger, 23rd April 2017, Seewinkel, Austria.

Two images clipped together of phaeopus (left) and the candidate alboaxillaris (right) showing the dumpy shape characteristic of alboaxillaris. The two images are not from the same frame but from the same series of pictures. Photo R. Katzinger, 23rd April 2017.

Two images clipped together of phaeopus (left) and the candidate alboaxillaris (right) showing the dumpy shape characteristic of alboaxillaris. The two images are not from the same frame but from the same series of pictures. Photo R. Katzinger, 23rd April 2017.

What is also very nice to see in this comparison is another structural feature that fits alboaxillaris – namely the dumpy body shape.  On the below images another feature is the barring of the inner primaries; alboaxillaris (top left) are banded inner five primaries significantly.  In comparison, a normal phaeopus (bottom right) generally shows darker inner primaries.

Candidate Steppe Whimbrel N. p alboaxillaris (top left and excerpted below) and nominate Whimbrel N. p. phaeopus (bottom right). Note deeper wing, especially at the base of the primaries, and barred inner primaries. Photo R. Katzinger, April 23, 2017, Seewinkel, Austria.

Candidate Steppe Whimbrel N. p alboaxillaris (top left and excerpted below) and nominate Whimbrel N. p. phaeopus (bottom right). Note deeper wing, especially at the base of the primaries, and barred inner primaries. Photo R. Katzinger, April 23, 2017, Seewinkel, Austria.

Comparison of candidate Steppe Whimbrel N. p alboaxillaris in Austria (left Photos by R. Katzinger) with both Steppe Whimbrels N. p. alboaxillaris in Maputo, Mozambique Feb 2016 (photo by R. Hughes above and G. Allport below). Note the similarity in tail pattern; the prominent pale tips to the tail may be an emerging feature for alboaxillaris. The barred inner primaries are a useful feature but some nominate phaeopus in Maputo show this feature to a greater extent than is evident from the photos herein. However, clear barring on the outer webs of the fifth outermost primary (counted outwards) does seem to be a feature exclusively shown by alboaxillaris. The barring on the inner primaries looks to be even more strongly marked on the bird in Austria than those in Maputo. Structurally the Austrian bird looks possibly deeper winged than the Maputo birds.

Comparison of candidate Steppe Whimbrel N. p alboaxillaris in Austria (left Photos by R. Katzinger) with both Steppe Whimbrels N. p. alboaxillaris in Maputo, Mozambique Feb 2016 (photo by R. Hughes above and G. Allport below). Note the similarity in tail pattern; the prominent pale tips to the tail may be an emerging feature for alboaxillaris. The barred inner primaries are a useful feature but some nominate phaeopus in Maputo show this feature to a greater extent than is evident from the photos herein. However, clear barring on the outer webs of the fifth outermost primary (counted outwards) does seem to be a feature exclusively shown by alboaxillaris. The barring on the inner primaries looks to be even more strongly marked on the bird in Austria than those in Maputo. Structurally the Austrian bird looks possibly deeper winged than the Maputo birds.

Overall the Austrian bird is a very strong candidate for the form alboaxillaris; all the key features, insofar as they are evident, point towards Steppe Whimbrel. However we are still so early in our understanding of this form that it should still remain categorised as a strong candidate, as a bird which shows features of the subspecies alboaxillaris and we hope that in the future as we understand Steppe Whimbrel better we can assign this bird with a greater confidence.

This is a remarkable record in several respects. On the one hand, the world population of the subspecies is estimated to be <100 individuals, and on the other hand, this breeding bird is best known from the Kazakh steppes and the Orenburg region of Russia from where it is assumed they migrate to the coast of East and South Africa – a significantly more eastern migration. There are, however, specimen records of birds on passage from Hungary in the 1960s which have not been re-examined since they were first catalogued, and there was also a recent breeding record of alboaxillaris in European Russia in 2009 (Morozo & Kornev 2009), albeit in Orenburg, one of the very easternmost provinces.

This record in Austria is significant and may point to a more westerly breeding population, or it may be that as numbers have dwindled that Steppe Whimbrel have become mixed with the nominates.  Either way, there is significant interest in finding birds in the ‘western’ side of the potential range.  Christoph Himmel is planning surveys of migrating birds on the Azerbaijan coastline of the Caspian Sea with a specific target of finding Steppe Whimbrels. More on his proposed work is here, and you can support the research here.

Donating to the African Bird Club’s research fund is also a very valuable way of supporting this work too.

Acknowledgements

Thanks to the photographers Richard Katzinger, H. Kolland, W. Trimmel and Ross Hughes for permissions to use their photos.

References

Allport, G. 2017. Steppe Whimbrels Numenius phaeopus alboaxillaris at Maputo, Mozambique, in February–March 2016, with a review of the status of the taxon. Bull. Afr. Bird Club 24(1): xx-xx

Allport, G. & Cohen, C. 2016. Finding Steppe Whimbrel: discovery and identification in southern Africa. African Birdlife 4(6):48-54

Morozov V. V. & Kornev S. V. 2009. [Ornithological news from the Orenburg Oblast.] Russ. J. Orn. 18: 2069–2081. [In Russian.

 

 

Red-necked Nightjars, males: ruficollis (two left) and desertorum (two right)

Red-necked Nightjar – one species or two?

By Yoav Perlman

Those who read my blog might have noticed that I addressed this topic briefly in my recent post. In this post I will expand a little. A visit to Frankfurts’ Senckenberg Naturmuseum a couple of weeks ago allowed me to take a look at these nightjars. My interest in Red-necked Nightjars arose as part of a project I am involved in, with Martin Collinson. We are looking at phylogeny of several un-sequenced nightjar species; Red-necked is one of them. It is somewhat strange for me to work on a species I have never seen in the field, yet. Last time I visited Iberia it was too early for them. I am returning to Iberia next week for 6 weeks of fieldwork, so I am quite confident I will catch up with them this spring.

Red-necked Nightjar has two subspecies – ruficollis that breeds in Iberia and in Morocco; while desertorum breeds in N Algeria and N Tunisia. Both subspecies migrate in winter to sub-Saharan Africa, where they apparently overlap in their winter distribution in Mali, Ghana and Gambia. However, the wintering distribution in Africa is not totally clear, and certainly where and where not the subspecies mix.

Map

Red-necked Nightjar distribution map from BirdLife Datazone

When I opened up the Red-necked Nightjar tray, I was struck by how apparent the morphological differences between the two species are.  No need for wing ruler – desertorum is visually so much larger than ruficollis! Though I behaved like an amateur and did not measure them, in this case I think the size difference is totally evident:

Red-necked Nightjars, males: ruficollis (two left) and desertorum (two right)

Red-necked Nightjars, males: ruficollis (two left) and desertorum (two right)

Interestingly, these apparent huge differences are not reflected in measurements from literature. In Nigel Cleere’s 2010 Nightjar guide, males of ruficollis have wings of 196-217 and tails of 149-168, while desertorum males have wings of 198-214 and tails of 153-171. Sadly, there is no mean given, and also not sample size. I need to check more references. It seems that another trip to Tring is necessary.

Apart for the size differences between the two subspecies, their plumages are pretty different too. desertorum is paler sandier below, and lacks the dark chest of ruficollis:

Red-necked Nightjars, males: ruficollis (two left) and desertorum (two right)

Red-necked Nightjars, males: ruficollis (two left) and desertorum (two right)

From above the overall difference in tones is less obvious, but the broader rufous collar of desertorum is apparent, and possibly narrower black crown streaking of desertorum, that is mentioned in Cleere’s book.

Red-necked Nightjars, males: ruficollis (two left) and desertorum (two right)

Red-necked Nightjars, males: ruficollis (two left) and desertorum (two right)

There is another difference between the subspecies, in the pattern of inner primaries, that is not visible in these photos. desertorum has a bold pattern of orange and black bands of equal width, while ruficollis has very little orange on the primary bases. Check the 2009 BB article by Tim Melling, describing the 1856 British record (ruficollis by the way), in which the primary pattern is nicely compared.

Xeno-Canto has sound recordings only of ruficollis. I wonder if there is are any differences in vocalisations? Has anyone ever sound recorded desertorum? Sound Approach guys?

So what do we have here?

  • Distinct breeding ranges – or not? The two subspecies are separated by 200-300 km of apparently suitable habitat in NW Algeria. Why is there a gap in distribution there? I don’t know.
  • Both subspecies migrate and apparently overlap in W Africa in winter.
  • There is an apparent huge size difference (see photos above), but this is not evident in published measurements.
  • Clear differences in general plumage tones, and also in patterns of specific feather tracts (primaries, collar).
  • No information available on vocalisations of desertorum.

I find it intriguing that these two taxa breed so close, and possibly are not geographically isolated at all, and still are so different morphologically. What will DNA analysis reveal? Is there room for another SHIPS (Species Hiding In Plain Sight) as Martin C. calls them? I am genuinely curious to find out. Hope to report the results in a few months.

Monteiro’s Storm-petrel, August 2013 (Richard Bonser). Note the active wing moult, with the inner primaries dropped.

Monteiro’s Petrel and Pelagic Birding off the Azores

By Peter Alfrey and Richard Bonser

The nine Azorean islands straggle 370 miles of the deep Atlantic, thrusting up from the deep oceanic depths as some of the tallest mountains on earth. The surrounding ocean, through its subsequent varied topography and numerous upwellings, provides rich feeding grounds for migrant seabirds as well as an Azorean endemic species, Monteiro’s Storm-petrel. The aim of this article is to chart the development of pelagic birding in the Azores, along with the species recorded to date, inviting you to consider joining a pelagic expedition.

Pelagic Birding exploration begins

In 2007, Peter Alfrey and Simon Buckell commenced a serious of exploration trips in the waters off the Azores in search of vagrant seabirds. There had already been a few interesting seabird sightings, mainly from the whale-watching boats around the islands – including Black-browed Albatross, Black-capped and Trindade Petrels – and so there was evidently some worth in inaugurating specific trips for seabirds.  The first trips were ‘wild cat’ expeditions from various islands including Corvo, Faial and Santa Maria with seamounts, banks and steep oceanic slopes targeted as likely areas of upwelling of nutrient rich waters, concentrating seabirds.

These first trips discovered good numbers of Wilson’s Storm-petrel, with 30+ at the Azores Bank off Faial in July 2007 and 70-80 also there in September 2009. Regular breeding species were also encountered, including Barolo Shearwater, Bulwer’s Petrels and Grant’s [Band-rumped] Storm-petrels (the winter breeding population), with a new breeding colony of the latter species discovered on Lagoinhas Islet off Santa Maria. Additionally, two Fea’s-type Petrel were recorded but overall, there was not much too significant to write home about.

Various forms of chums were experimented with, and in the end an adapted version of Hadoram Shirihai’s ‘petrel liquor’ was the most successful (using liquid oil instead of melted margarine), along with sardine chum, drip lines and fish oils. Experiments with frozen blocks proved problematic due to the comparatively warm deep Atlantic temperature.

Monteiro’s Storm-petrel- the discovery of a cryptic species endemic to the Azores

In 2008 the ground-breaking paper “Monteiro’s Storm Petrel Oceanodroma monteiroi: a new species from the Azores” by Mark Bolton et al was published in Ibis.  Significantly, this described the summer-breeding population of Band-rumped Storm-petrel on the Azores – Monteiro’s Storm-petrel – as having evolved separately from the winter-breeding population, as already suggested by Monteiro and Furness 1998. Additionally, subtle differences in biometrics, genetics, breeding ecology and vocalisations (Robb et al. 2008) were described, though to the field birder it’s extremely similar to other members of the Band-rumped Storm-petrel complex (see Flood and Fisher 2013, and Howell et al. 2010).

However due to the two populations breeding at different times of year, and with neither apparently spending their respective non-breeding seasons in Azorean waters, the initial way to see Monteiro’s Storm-petrel was simple – visit a colony at the right time of year when only that species was present; May to June in the case of Monteiro’s Storm-petrel. Opportunities for birders to encounter this cryptic species were limited by access restrictions to the main breeding colony off Praia Islet on Graciosa. Joining research teams, who monitored the artificially created nest burrows, used to be the only way. Richard Bonser was lucky to do this in July 2009, courtesy of Joël Bried, and was able to study the species at close range, including adults and nestlings. Remarkably, the two populations use the same nests at times – just as the Monteiro’s Storm-petrels were fledging and leaving their nest sites, the winter population of Band-rumped Storm-petrel (referred to from here on in as Grant’s Storm-petrel) were moving back in.

Monteiro’s Storm-petrel breeding burrows on Praia islet, July 2009 (Richard Bonser)

Monteiro’s Storm-petrel breeding burrows on Praia islet, July 2009 (Richard Bonser)

Monteiro’s Storm-petrel chick, August 2009 (Richard Bonser)

Monteiro’s Storm-petrel chick, August 2009 (Richard Bonser)

And so the waters around Graciosa were the obvious area for pelagic exploration to discover regular feeding areas to see Monteiro’s Storm-petrels at sea. It didn’t take long – in fact, it happened even before the description of the species – as in May 2007, Killian Mullarney and Magnus Robb not only discovered Monteiro’s Storm-petrel at sea to the southeast of Graciosa but also jammed in on a Black-capped Petrel! With a renewed sense of purpose, Peter Alfrey returned to the Azores for seabirding and visited Graciosa in May 2010.

Surveying the sea for Monteiro’s Storm-petrel

Peter Alfrey returned to Graciosa in May 2010, armed with GPS co-ordinates supplied by Killian Mullarney, but adverse weather hampered the potential for any prolonged period at sea. However, in limited searching, Monteiro’s Storm-petrels were found in the same area as in May 2007 and the peaks and troughs of the stormy sea also allowed close approach on a Barolo Shearwater – different from the usual view of a bird flapping frantically away ahead of a boat!

Barolo Shearwater, off Graciosa, May 2010 (Peter Alfrey)

Barolo Shearwater, off Graciosa, May 2010 (Peter Alfrey)

However, other than this close encounter, 2010 was pretty much a mini-disaster. It was getting very expensive too and with boat charter at over 500 euros per day, the only way to make these expeditions cost effective was to literally get more people on board. And so Peter Alfrey returned in June 2011 with a group of 12 birders (including Richard Bonser). However, on the first evening’s pelagic, Peter accidentally dropped £3,000 worth of camera equipment overboard which went straight to the bottom of abyss – negating any perceived cost saving!

The weather conditions in June 2011 were ideal for sailing, but this seemed to have changed the behaviour of the Monteiro’s Storm-petrels. Not many birds could be found in close proximity to the breeding area on Praia islet, and therefore a target area (a bank where fishermen had reported lots of small black and white birds) was visited – the Bank of Fortune – on the last day of the trip. Lying 20 or so miles to the east of Graciosa and providing numerous upwellings suitable for feeding seabirds, it was still within easy reach. Within a few hours of observation, we came across 50+ Monteiro’s Storm-petrels and up to 15 Wilson’s Storm-petrels all at close range.  We also saw at least three Barolo Shearwaters, a Grey Phalarope and four Great Skuas, surprisingly lingering in Azorean waters in early summer. Additionally, a Sooty Tern was also seen on Praia islet where up to two birds have been seen each year recently. That year we also had a Portuguese wildlife film-making crew with us that were filming for a documentary called ‘In Search of Monteiro’s Storm-petrel’, that has subsequently been watched by a quarter of million Portuguese. Not a bad thing for raising the profile of this Azores’ endemic and conserving its breeding habitat.

Monteiro’s Storm-petrel, June 2011 (Gareth Knass). During early summer these hot season breeders are the only ‘band-rumped storm-petrels’ present; the adults show no sign of moult on the primaries and secondaries.

Monteiro’s Storm-petrel, June 2011 (Gareth Knass). During early summer these hot season breeders are the only ‘band-rumped storm-petrels’ present; the adults show no sign of moult on the primaries and secondaries.

Adult Monteiro’s Petrel, June 2011 (Rafael Armada). This is a ‘classic’ Monteiro’s Petrel, photographed in mid-summer when only this species is present in the region, showing a deep forked tail and long-winged appearance producing an overall ‘rakish’ structure. The measurements of Monteiro’s Petrel indicate overall a longer wing and deeper fork to the tail than ‘Grant’s Petrel’.

Adult Monteiro’s Petrel, June 2011 (Rafael Armada). This is a ‘classic’ Monteiro’s Petrel, photographed in mid-summer when only this species is present in the region, showing a deep forked tail and long-winged appearance producing an overall ‘rakish’ structure. The measurements of Monteiro’s Petrel indicate overall a longer wing and deeper fork to the tail than ‘Grant’s Petrel’.

Adult Monteiro’s Petrel, June 2011 (Rafael Armada). Another view of a classic looking bird at the ‘right’ time of year in the ‘right ‘area.

Adult Monteiro’s Petrel, June 2011 (Rafael Armada). Another view of a classic looking bird at the ‘right’ time of year in the ‘right ‘area.

The Bank of Fortune

The last day of our June 2011 pelagic trip established one thing that has become integral going forwards. The Bank of Fortune was the place to locate storm-petrels at sea off the coast of Graciosa. With the world population of Monteiro’s Storm-petrel conservatively estimated at 250 birds, and all of these breeding off Graciosa, the draw of guaranteed sightings of this species would inevitably develop interest from birders. But there was more to come, and we wanted to hit this seabird hotspot at times where we could maximise chances of connecting with vagrants and passage seabirds too.

The obvious choice was to go in the August/September period – the overlap time of year between the hot and cool season breeding ‘band-rumped storm-petrels’, allowing both Monteiro’s and Grant’s Storm-petrels to be seen together. As well as trying to identify these two cryptic species at sea on the basis of wing moult, there was also the real potential of vagrant seabirds…

Monteiro’s Storm-petrel, August 2012 (Peter Alfrey). A worn bird in the start of its primary moult. The upperwing-coverts and dishevelled carpal bar also indicate this bird is in worn plumage.

Monteiro’s Storm-petrel, August 2012 (Peter Alfrey). A worn bird in the start of its primary moult. The upperwing-coverts and dishevelled carpal bar also indicate this bird is in worn plumage.

Monteiro’s Storm-petrel, August 2013 (Richard Bonser). Note the active wing moult, with the inner primaries dropped.

Monteiro’s Storm-petrel, August 2013 (Richard Bonser). Note the active wing moult, with the inner primaries dropped.

Monteiro’s Storm-petrel, August 2012 (Peter Alfrey). Early August is generally too early for Grant’s Storm-petrels to be prospecting nest burrows. However, some Monteiro’s Storm-petrels have also not started to undergo wing moult and therefore both species may show ‘a full set of wings’. In instances such as this, the brownness of the feathering – created by bleaching - suggests a warm season breeder.

Monteiro’s Storm-petrel, August 2012 (Peter Alfrey). Early August is generally too early for Grant’s Storm-petrels to be prospecting nest burrows. However, some Monteiro’s Storm-petrels have also not started to undergo wing moult and therefore both species may show ‘a full set of wings’. In instances such as this, the brownness of the feathering – created by bleaching – suggests a warm season breeder.

‘band-rumped storm-petrel’ off Graciosa, early August 2012 (Vincent Legrand). The fresh set of primaries and secondaries indicates this is either a juvenile Monteiro’s Storm-petrel or an early adult Grant’s Storm-petrel. Such birds cannot be identified with certainty on current knowledge, and despite perceived structural differences such as the less notched tail and sturdier overall appearance for Grant’s Storm-petrel, a bird such as this is best left unidentified.

‘band-rumped storm-petrel’ off Graciosa, early August 2012 (Vincent Legrand). The fresh set of primaries and secondaries indicates this is either a juvenile Monteiro’s Storm-petrel or an early adult Grant’s Storm-petrel. Such birds cannot be identified with certainty on current knowledge, and despite perceived structural differences such as the less notched tail and sturdier overall appearance for Grant’s Storm-petrel, a bird such as this is best left unidentified.

‘band-rumped storm-petrel’ off Graciosa, early August 2012 (Vincent Legrand). Grant’s Storm-petrels are on average more square-tailed than Monteiro’s Storm-petrel. However, Flood and Fisher (2011) advise to exercise extreme caution as there is much overlap in this feature between taxa. This problem is accentuated in judging these features in field conditions by apparent variation caused by angle of view and posture of bird which is further complicated in varying weather conditions. The shape of the tail is best assessed on square-on photographs and the presence of a deep fork is a stronger feature than an apparent square ended tail, which could be a result of feathers being splayed.

‘band-rumped storm-petrel’ off Graciosa, early August 2012 (Vincent Legrand). Grant’s Storm-petrels are on average more square-tailed than Monteiro’s Storm-petrel. However, Flood and Fisher (2011) advise to exercise extreme caution as there is much overlap in this feature between taxa. This problem is accentuated in judging these features in field conditions by apparent variation caused by angle of view and posture of bird which is further complicated in varying weather conditions. The shape of the tail is best assessed on square-on photographs and the presence of a deep fork is a stronger feature than an apparent square ended tail, which could be a result of feathers being splayed.

Adult Monteiro’s Storm-petrel, August 2012 (Vincent Legrand). Other summer breeding ‘band-rumped storm-petrels’ from Madeira and Cape Verde would also be moulting inner primaries during the late summer, and as such, these birds would be ‘impossible’ in some cases to tell from Monteiro’s Storm-petrel. A Madeiran Storm-petrel was actually sound recorded from within the Monteiro’s colony on Graciosa in May 2007 (Robb et al 2008) so this potential identification hazard is proven. Monteiro’s Storm-petrel is not called a ‘cryptic species’ for no reason!

Adult Monteiro’s Storm-petrel, August 2012 (Vincent Legrand). Other summer breeding ‘band-rumped storm-petrels’ from Madeira and Cape Verde would also be moulting inner primaries during the late summer, and as such, these birds would be ‘impossible’ in some cases to tell from Monteiro’s Storm-petrel. A Madeiran Storm-petrel was actually sound recorded from within the Monteiro’s colony on Graciosa in May 2007 (Robb et al 2008) so this potential identification hazard is proven. Monteiro’s Storm-petrel is not called a ‘cryptic species’ for no reason!

A further complication is other taxa of ‘band-rumped storm-petrels’, particularly first-summer from both the summer and winter breeding populations. The dispersal ranges of the various taxa of ‘band-rumps’ are not fully understood, immature or adult and birds from any population in principle could be present in Azorean waters at any time of year. This could lead to confusion in assigning taxa using moult timing. However, despite all the complications, a long-winged non-moulting bird with a deep forked tail in early summer and a similarly structured bird moulting its inner primaries in August/September in the core breeding range can, on balance, safely be considered a Monteiro’s Storm-petrel.

Hitting the jackpot?

We therefore concentrated pelagic efforts on the Bank of Fortune, coordinating three separate trips (with a total of twelve days at sea) in early August 2012, late August 2013 and early September 2013.   Unbelievably, as well as gaining excellent views of Monteiro’s Storm-petrel, each of the three trips recorded a Swinhoe’s Storm-petrel!

Even more outstanding was our discovery of a Zino’s Petrel on the bank in 2011 (which was identified by Bob Flood). This is one of few sight records of this species away from its breeding area, and confirms geolocator studies which show that the species disperses into Azorean waters.

Geolocator studies also incredibly show that Bermuda Petrels regularly disperse into Azorean waters and we hope to connect with one in the future. Bermuda Petrel has already been recorded on the Azores – an individual was famously captured and re-captured in a burrow on several occasions between 2002 and 2006 on Santa Maria.

Further trips were arranged in 2014, 2015 and 2016 confirming the reliability of the Bank of Fortune for Monteiro’s and Swinhoe’s Petrel, with Swinhoe’s recorded on all six trips since 2012. The Bank also held more surprises with Brown Booby in 2013, South Polar Skua in 2014, Fea’s Petrels in  2013 and 2016 and Sooty Terns (a breeding pair on Praia islet) were encountered most years.

The following table shows our pelagic sightings to date, though as more birders and pelagic trips focus on the Bank of Fortune and beyond we’re hopeful of some more significant records. Bob Flood and Ashley Fisher have identified the Azores as ‘The northeast Atlantic Pterodroma hotspot’ based on past records and geolocator studies. So with Zino’s and Fea’s Petrels already recorded, we’re holding our breath in the wait for a Bermuda, Black-capped or Trindade Petrel next…

Zino’s Petrel (Harro Müller). This record received a detailed discussion by Flood and Fisher 2013. Geolocator studies have revealed that birds disperse widely into the North Atlantic from their breeding grounds in Madeira.

Swinhoe’s Storm-petrel (Peter Alfrey). Remarkably, individuals of this species have been seen on each of the last three pelagic expeditions off Graciosa.

Swinhoe’s Storm-petrel (Peter Alfrey). Remarkably, individuals of this species have been seen on each of the last three pelagic expeditions off Graciosa.

Brown Booby off Graciosa, September 2013 (Peter Alfrey). The third record for the Azores.

Brown Booby off Graciosa, September 2013 (Peter Alfrey). The third record for the Azores.

Long-tailed Skua (Peter Alfrey)

Long-tailed Skua (Peter Alfrey)

Fea’s Petrel off Graciosa, September 2013 (Harro Müller)

Fea’s Petrel off Graciosa, September 2013 (Harro Müller)

Great Shearwater off Graciosa, August 2013 (Richard Bonser). Phenomenal views of this South Atlantic breeder can be had alongside the innumerable Cory’s Shearwaters.

Great Shearwater off Graciosa, August 2013 (Richard Bonser). Phenomenal views of this South Atlantic breeder can be had alongside the innumerable Cory’s Shearwaters.

Sooty Tern, Praia Islet off Graciosa, August 2013 (Richard Bonser). One of up to two adults that are regularly recorded in the tern colony on the island.

Sooty Tern, Praia Islet off Graciosa, August 2013 (Richard Bonser). One of up to two adults that are regularly recorded in the tern colony on the island.

South Polar Skua (Richard Bonser). One of the surprise highlights of the 2014 pelagic trip.

South Polar Skua (Richard Bonser). One of the surprise highlights of the 2014 pelagic trip.

Pelagic Trips from Graciosa 2011 to 2016 (Cumulative totals for trips each of 3.5 days at sea)

Species June 2011 August 2012 August 2013 September 2013 August 2014 August 2015 August/

September 2016

Fea’s Petrel       1     2 (fea’s-type)
Zino’s Petrel   1          
Bulwers Petrel 4 18 1 3 11 1 8
Cory’s Shearwater x X x X X X X
Great Shearwater     60+ 100+ 300+ X 130
Sooty Shearwater 5     20+ 7   21
Manx Shearwater 4 5 1 4 6    
Barolo’s Shearwater 3 1     1 1  
Wilson’s Storm Petrel 15 6 7 1 3 3 5
Swinhoe’s Petrel   1 1 1 1 1 1
Monteiro’s Petrel 50+ c20 C30 10+ 50 10+ 120+
‘Grant’s’ Petrel   c10 2+ 2+ 2+   X
Brown Booby       1      
Northern Gannet 1            
Grey Phalarope 1            
Pomarine Skua       1 1 1 1
Arctic Skua       5 3 1 5
Long-tailed Skua     1 3 3 1 2
Great Skua 4            
South Polar Skua         1    
‘Azores Gull’ X X X X X X X
Lesser Black-backed Gull   1 X X X X X
Sabine’s Gull         1    
Roseate Tern X X X 20+ X X X
Common Tern X X X X X X X
Arctic Tern         1    
Sooty Tern 1   1 2 3 1  

*A Solitary Sandpiper was also recorded at sea in August 2012.

*Trindade Petrel was recorded by an independent pelagic birder off Graciosa in 2012.

x- present throughout

Other Wildlife from Graciosa 2011 to 2016 (Cumulative totals for trips of 3.5 days at sea)

Species June 2011 August 2012 August 2013 September 2013 August

2014

August/

September 2016

Sperm Whale   4     1 2
Cuvier’s Beaked Whale 6         4
Northern Bottlenose Whale   1        
Sowerby’s Beaked Whale   1     5 4
Minke Whale   1        
Common Dolphin 200+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 10  
Bottlenose Dolphin 50+ 10+ 20+ 10+ 30+ x
Spotted Dolphin   50+ 20+ 50+ 20+  
Striped Dolphin           25
Risso’s Dolphin 12+ 20+        
Loggerhead Turtle 1 3 2 7    
Sunfish 1          
Blue Shark 3     3 1  
Hammerhead Shark   1        
Oceanic White-tip Shark       1    
Breaching Sowerby Beaked Whales (Richard Bonser). Regularly recorded on the pelagics.

Breaching Sowerby Beaked Whales (Richard Bonser). Regularly recorded on the pelagics.

 Common Dolphins (Gareth Knass)

Common Dolphins (Gareth Knass)

Spotted Dolphins (Vincent Legrand)

Spotted Dolphins (Vincent Legrand)

 Blue Shark with pilot fish (Harro Müller)

Blue Shark with pilot fish (Harro Müller)

Logistics

The best way to see Monteiro’s and Grant’s Storm-petrels, as well as other seabirds on the Azores, is to join an organised pelagic to the area with Peter and Richard in partnership with travel agents Azores Choice and Diving Graciosa. This year’s pelagic trip will run from 27th August to 1st September. So if you are interested in joining this trip (or subsequent trips) please email Peter at littleoakgroup@btinternet.com. This trip can also be combined with a trip to see the Azores Bullfinch, and it’s also likely that the first American waders of the autumn will be arriving in the famous Cabo da Praia quarry.

Acknowledgements

Many thanks to Bob Flood for improvements to the text of this article.

Thanks to all the birders that have participated in the pelagics. Special thanks and indebted to Ian from Azores Choice for sorting out all the logistics and of course to Rolando Oliveira and his crew from Diving Graciosa for taking us out to sea.

2011 Team

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Champions of the Flyway 2017

By Yoav Perlman

Turtle Dove, Nizzana, Israel, August 2012. Photo by Yoav Perlman.

Turtle Dove, Nizzana, Israel, August 2012. Photo by Yoav Perlman.

25 million birds are killed and trapped illegally around the Mediterranean Basin annually – this staggering figure is an estimate by BirdLife International experts. This massacre directly affects bird populations in western Europe and in the UK – declining species like Turtle Dove, Quail and Song Thrush are among those that are most heavily hunted.

I guess many of our followers have heard of Champions of the Flyway (COTF). In brief, it’s an international conservation project, aiming to tackle illegal killing and trapping of birds around the Mediterranean Basin. The project begins with a huge fundraising campaign, and the climax is in a 24-hour bird race at Eilat, Israel on March 28th 2017. The project is coordinated by BirdLife partner in Israel, the Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel, in collaboration with BirdLife International. Each year, BirdLife International chooses a local NGO to receive the funds raised in the project. In the three previous races, over $180,000 were raised for conservation. This may not seem a lot, but for small NGO’s like Sabuko in Georgia or Helenic Ornithological Society in Greece, such funds are vital.

Roula Trigou of BirdLife Greece receives COTF 2016 funds from BirdLife CEO Patricia Zurita

Roula Trigou of BirdLife Greece receives COTF 2016 funds from BirdLife CEO Patricia Zurita

This year, BirdLife partner in Turkey, Doğa Derneği, will receive the funds. They were chosen because sadly Turkey is a hotspot for illegal killing of birds – millions of birds are killed there annually. COTF funds are essential for their incredible work on the ground. Before we started working directly with Doğa, I wasn’t aware of their huge efforts to tackle illegal killing of birds in Turkey. Now I know that they are doing exactly what needs to be done by NGO’s – focused work on educating children and local communities to stop this killing. And with COTF funds, they plan to expand their programs and make them more effective. One unique project they are operating is work with Syrian refugees in Turkey, who know little about conservation and without support and attention will surely hunt birds around where they currently reside. This kind of work that involves humanitarian work, conservation and education is truly groundbreaking. You can learn more about Doğa’s mission here.

Imperial Eagle_locals

Imperial Eagle research

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Some nice migratory birds from Eastern Turkey…

Grey-necked Bunting, Van, Turkey, June 2013.

Grey-necked Bunting, Van, Turkey, June 2013. Photo by Yoav Perlman. Maybe this year a first for Israel will be found on race day?

Paddyfield Warbler, Van, Turkey, June 2013. Photo by Yoav Perlman.

Paddyfield Warbler, Van, Turkey, June 2013. Photo by Yoav Perlman.

This year, COTF bird race will be bigger than ever. It’s an awesome event. Really great. You’ll love it. At the moment 18 international teams are registered – from UK, USA, South Africa, Finland, China, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, Germany and of course Turkey. We take special pride in the Palestinian team – the Palestine Sunbirds. Additionally, there is a parallel Israeli race, that includes currently 20 teams, about half of which are children, youth and women!

 

COTF 2016 participants remembering Martin Garner with a Boom!

COTF 2016 participants remembering Martin Garner with a Boom!

The race itself is a celebration of migration, but also of friendship, stamina and involvement. You can get the feel of the race in this brilliant video of last year’s race:

The three major optic companies, Swarovski, Zeiss and Leica, have supported COTF from the start, and every company supports several teams. Last year, Zeiss Arctic Redpolls won the international race. They are returning this year to defend their title. Will they succeed?

Zeiss Arctic Redpolls - Roni Väisänen, Vilppu Välimäki and Jarkko Santaharju receive their prize from Dale Forbers from Swarovski

Zeiss Arctic Redpolls – Roni Väisänen, Vilppu Välimäki and Jarkko Santaharju receive their prize from Dale Forbes from Swarovski Optik

Each one of the race teams is fundraising now for the conservation cause, through their team pages. Donations are collected by BirdLife International via justgiving.

The migratory birds that pass through Turkey need your help! $5, £5, €5, whatever you can – every cent is important. Please consider supporting one of the teams on the 2017 teams page. Personally, I have special links with several teams, and I recommend donating to them, but feel free to donate to the team of your choice. Here are my teams of choice:

Birdwatch – Birdguides Roadrunners – featuring in this team is my good friend Mark Pearson AKA Fileybirder. Mark was also a very good friend of Martin Garner, and contributes regularly material to Birding Frontiers. His team mates are Dawn Balmer, who is also a good friend of mine, through her work at BTO and OSME. Mike Alibone is an old friend too.

The Spokes Folkes – I first met Gary at 2016 Norfolk Birdfair. We had a good conversation, in which I told him about COTF. Gary got hooked on the idea, and a year later – he has a team! It’s a special team because it’s one of the few green teams in the race – Gary and his young intrepid teammates from Orkney will cycle through the playing field of southern Israel.

My third recommendation is The Golden Pheasents. This team was born in Warham Greens in Norfolk last October, when I went birding with Terry. We didn’t see much that morning, but I am happy that my enthusiasm motivated Terry to form the first Chinese team in COTF. Terry is a close friend and a Birding Frontiers team member too.

I must stress that I have close friends in almost all teams, and all teams represent important organisations and initiatives – Vulture Conservation, Artists for Nature and more. Check the team pages, choose your team or teams – and open your heart.

We have less than three weeks to go to the race. Teams will soon be arriving in Israel, so now it’s time to step up the fundraising. On race day, follow our live updates on Facebook and Twitter. As my mate Jonathan (COTF organiser) says – Bring it!

 

Variation in adult Cabot’s Tern and Sandwich Tern

By Yoav Perlman

With special assistance from Mike Langman and Guillermo Rodriguez

These two tern species from both sides of the Atlantic look very similar, but in fact are not even the closest relatives – based on genetics, Cabot’s Tern was found to be a sister species of Elegant Tern. Sandwich Tern Thalasseus sandvicensis is monotypic, and Cabot’s Tern includes Thalasseus a. acuflavida and another taxon – Cayene Tern T. a. eurygnatha. This post deals only with nominate acuflavida.

In his Challenge Series Autumn book, Martin Garner dedicated a chapter to them. And of course there’s Garner et al. 2007 DB article. Though not a frequent visitor to Europe as other American gulls and terns, the potential to find a Cabot’s Tern in Europe remains, in light of records of both taxa on both sides of the Atlantic. Additionally, one individual in October 2016 on Tereceira, Azores in October 2016 was first claimed as Cabot’s Tern and caused a bit of a headache. Therefore, I think it is worth revisiting the main ID criteria to separate the two species. I must stress that I am no expert on Cabot’s Tern ID, so I hugely appreciate the valuable help I received from Mike Langman, Guillermo Rodriguez and Julian Hough who certainly are experts. In this post I will try to demonstrate some variation in both species regarding main ID criteria, but I think that still most individuals can be safely identified, within the known limits of variation. That’s why it’s important to document and acknowledge this variation in both species.

Bill structure

The thumb rule is that Cabot’s Tern has a thicker, heavier-based and straighter bill, with an obvious gonydeal angle. Not quite Great Black-backed Gull gonys, but it is still there. Most literature mentions that Sandwich Tern has a proportionately longer bill, without any gonys (really?), and a distinct drooping tip.

I don’t know much about bill development in terns, but I know that in gulls very often adults have heavier bills than young birds, with more pronounced gonydeal angle. The same goes for sexual differences in bill structure – male gulls have larger and heavier bills than females. So possibly some variation in tern bills is age and sex related?

This is a nice, heavy-billed Cabot’s Tern (in April, I know…) showing a pronounced gonys:

Cabot's Tern, High Island, Texas, USA, April 2016. Photo by Guillermo Rodriguez

Cabot’s Tern, High Island, Texas, USA, April 2016. Photo by Guillermo Rodriguez

This Cabot’s Tern has a slightly thinner bill with almost no gonys, but it is still very straight, lacking the drooping tip of a sandwich.

Cabot's Tern, High Island, Texas, USA, April 2016. Photo by Guillermo Rodriguez

Cabot’s Tern, High Island, Texas, USA, April 2016. Photo by Guillermo Rodriguez

This is a typical Sandwich Tern, with a long, slender bill, distinctly downcurved, and lacking any gonys:

Sandwich Tern, Arrecife , Lanzarote, Canary islands, September 2011. Photo by David Perez

Sandwich Tern, Arrecife, Lanzarote, Canary Islands, September 2011. Photo by David Perez

Though some Sandwich Terns show a rather pronounced gonys, the bill always looks slender and downcurved:

Sandwich Tern, Arrecife, Lanzarote, Canary islands, October 2011. Photo by David Perez

Sandwich Tern, Arrecife, Lanzarote, Canary Islands, October 2011. Photo by David Perez

Note also that in literature it is mentioned that on average, adult Cabot’s Terns shows a more extensive yellow tip to the bill than Sandwich Terns. There is lots of variation in this, and I suspect that like in other terns this variation in bill tip pattern may be related to breeding condition and sex.

Pattern an overall ‘darkness’ of primaries

Cabot’s Tern has generally darker primaries than Sandwich Tern. There is a difference between the two species in both the base colour of the primaries, and the width of the pale fringes to each primary, especially on the inner web. Sandwich tern also shows a pale ‘hook’ on the outer webs of old and new primaries, while Cabot’s tern apparently never has pale markings on the outer webs. It should be noted that in both species, old and worn primaries before moult are darker and have narrower pale fringes, so a worn Sandwich Tern just before moult can look as dark as a freshly-moulted Cabot’s Tern. Therefore, it is important to understand whether the primaries used for identification are fresh or worn.

This is a typically dark-winged Cabot’s Tern, in late September:

Cabot's Tern, Tulum, Yucatan, Mexico, 25 September 2016. Photo by Mike Langman.

Cabot’s Tern, Tulum, Yucatan, Mexico, 25 September 2016. Photo by Mike Langman.

Check this individual, also in late September: it has an overall paler wingtip, with rather broad pale outer webs. Also, it is not easy to understand the exact pattern of the worn outer primaries. Seem to have no pale on the outer webs but I’m not sure what exactly is going on there:

Cabot's Tern, Tulum, Yucatan, Mexico, 25 September 2016. Photo by Mike Langman.

Cabot’s Tern, Tulum, Yucatan, Mexico, 25 September 2016. Photo by Mike Langman.

Sandwich Tern typically gives a pale impression to wingtip, with prominent pale inner and outer webs to outer primaries, that it had almost completed moulting in October:

Sandwich Tern, Arrecife, Lanzarote, Canary Islands, October 2011. Photo by David Perez

Sandwich Tern, Arrecife, Lanzarote, Canary Islands, October 2011. Photo by David Perez

This September Sandwich Tern has a really dark wingtip, with very narrow pale fringes to visible outer primaries:

Sandwich Tern, Salinas de la Tapa, Cadiz, Spain, 9 September 2011. Photo by David Perez.

Sandwich Tern, Salinas de la Tapa, Cadiz, Spain, 9 September 2011. Photo by David Perez

Moult (or molt?) timing

There is some conflicting information about this. Adult Sandwich and Cabot’s Terns perform an arrested moult, in which it replaced 5-6 inner primaries before migration, and then the rest after migration. In ‘Challenge Series Autumn’ Martin Garner wrote that Sandwich Tern moults earlier than Cabot’s and mentions that Cabot’s moults the outer primaries late, in December – January, with some individuals showing unmoulted primaries in March. Pyle mentions in his book that Cabot’s moult P8-P10 Between October and March. Malling Olsen and Larsson even write in their tern guide that P10 can be moulted between March and June. Quite a broad temporal window. And to make it even more complicated, according to the brand new BTO guide Identification of European Non-Passerines, some Sandwich Terns complete their moult by late October, while others complete this moult only in winter. So a complete or near-complete moult in mid-autumn (October) indicates Sandwich Tern, but it doesn’t seem to work the other way – late moult in late autumn (November – December) does not necessarily exclude Sandwich Tern. Using early moult to identify a vagrant Sandwich in North America is fine, but late moult is not necessarily a sign for a vagrant Cabot’s in Europe.

Crown pattern

Basically, Cabot’s Tern has darker and more solid rear crown, with longer feathers and very few if any white tips. Crown is rather clean white. Cabot’s also tend to show more black around and in front of the eye. Not sure about this one… Sandwich Tern has a paler rear crown, with more white tips – often referred as ‘peppered’ rear crown. There are more dark feathers on the crown itself. However… variation here too. Quite a peppered rear crown on this September Cabot’s. Top crown is clean though.

Cabot's Tern, Tulum, Yucatan, Mexico, 25 September 2016. Photo by Mike Langman.

Cabot’s Tern, Tulum, Yucatan, Mexico, 25 September 2016. Photo by Mike Langman

This is a more normal-looking Cabot’s tern, with a rather solid black rear crown, though there are quite many white feathers mixed. Very clean white crown. But oh no, look at the pale ‘hook’ around the primaries…

Cabot's Tern, Florida, USA, 21 January 2007. Photo by Julian Hough.

Cabot’s Tern, Florida, USA, 21 January 2007. Photo by Julian Hough.

A beautiful demonstration of the dirty crown of Sandwich Tern:

Sandwich Tern, Ijmuiden, Netherlands, 23 September 2012. Photo by Marten Miske

Sandwich Tern, Ijmuiden, Netherlands, 23 September 2012. Photo by Marten Miske

Check the rather solid dark rear crown of this October Sandwich Tern:

Sandwich Tern, Norfolk, UK, October 2016. Photo by Mike Dawson

Sandwich Tern, Norfolk, UK, October 2016. Photo by Mike Dawson

Terceira, Azores, October 2016 individual

This individual was on the Nearctic magnet archipelago last October. Some friends are writing about this individual so I will refrain from expressing my view on it. Here are some images – judge for yourself:

... Tern, Terceira, Azores, October 2016. Photo by Mika Bruun.

… Tern, Terceira, Azores, October 2016. Photo by Mika Bruun.

... Tern, Terceira, Azores, October 2016. Photo by Mika Bruun.

… Tern, Terceira, Azores, October 2016. Photo by Mika Bruun.

... Tern, Terceira, Azores, October 2016. Photo by Daniel Mauras.

… Tern, Terceira, Azores, October 2016. Photo by Daniel Mauras.

In the next episode – hatch-year birds…

Many thanks to all the talented photographers, to Killian Mullarney and to Nick Watmough who contributed to this post!