Monthly Archives: October 2016

Eastern Yellow Wagtail in Scilly

By Yoav Perlman

Eastern Yellow Wagtail Motacilla (flava) tschutschensis is the eastern counterpart of Western Yellow Wagtail. It is divided into two main groups – ‘blue-headed’ with supercilium (tschutschensis and taivana), and ‘grey/black-headed’ without supercilium (plexa and macronyx).

Distribution map of yellow wagtails, from Bot, S., Gronendijk, D., and van oosten, H. H. (2014). Eastern yellow wagtails in -Europe: identification and vocalisations. Dutch Birding 36: 295-311.

Distribution map of yellow wagtails, from: Bot, S., Gronendijk, D., and van Oosten, H. H. (2014). Eastern yellow wagtails in Europe: identification and vocalisations. Dutch Birding 36: 295-311.

This is another taxon that seems to get identified in Western Europe in increasing frequency. There are three accepted records in the UK: Colyton, Devon in December 2010 bird that was DNA’d, featured in the definitive article by Sander Bot (2014) et al. (Dutch Birding 36: 295-311), Outer Skerries (Shetland) in 2011, and an old specimen from Fair Isle 1909. But there are some further recent strong candidates in the UK that ticked all (or most) boxes. Some have featured on Birding Frontiers before – for example here and here. Looking back through the archives of Birding Frontiers, the learning curve is apparent – Martin really pushed the boundaries here. With the progression of knowledge, it is possible that BBRC will accept future records without DNA, based on good photos and sound recordings.

This striking individual was present in Scilly earlier this month. To my eyes and ears it is a perfect example of an Eastern Yellow Wagtail. I want to thank Nigel Hudson (BBRC secretary) who helped me obtain material for this post, and kindly shared the ‘story’ of its discovery with me:

On October 13th, while Nigel was cutting his front garden grass, a group of birders that included Mark Andrews walked past his house as they headed out from Lower Moors on St. Mary’s. To his question if there was anything about, they showed him on their camera screens photos of an odd yellow wagtail, and they mentioned Eastern Yellow Wagtail as a possibility. Nigel rushed the whole 100 m from his house to where the wagtail was, and after initial views alerted local birders. They all obtained great photos of the bird and some sound recordings during the few days it stayed in the same area – a selection is presented here.

When identifying 1st-winter Eastern Yellow Wagtails, it is necessary to exclude Citrine Wagtail and Western Yellow Wagtail, and hybrids between the two (like this possible bird). A small proportion of 1st-winter Western Yellow Wagtails can give a similar monochromatic impression; and especially in the eastern fringes of the range; in beema and lutea, 1st-winters tend to be more monochromatic, lacking or almost lacking yellow and green tones, especially females (1st-winter males are on average yellower than females). In Eastern Yellow Wagtails a high proportion of 1st-winters are very grey-and-white. Some show faint yellow tones on the mantle, undertail coverts and tertial fringes, but the Scilly bird is as cold as it gets:

Eastern Yellow Wagtail, Lower Moors, St. Mary's, Isles of Scilly, October 2016. photo by Simon Knight.

Eastern Yellow Wagtail, Lower Moors, St. Mary’s, Isles of Scilly, October 2016. Photo by Simon Knight http://simonknightphotography.zenfolio.com/.

Two Western Yellow Wagtails for comparison:

Western Yellow Wagtail (flava), Bet Kama, israel, 2 September 2013. Photo by Yoav Perlman.

Western Yellow Wagtail (flava), 1st-winter, Bet Kama, Israel, 2 September 2013. Photo by Yoav Perlman.

'British' Western Yellow Wagtail (flavissima), Spurn, East Yorkshire, 6 September 2015. Photo by Yoav Perlman.

‘British’ Western Yellow Wagtail (flavissima), Spurn, East Yorkshire, 6 September 2015. Photo by Yoav Perlman.

Eastern Yellow Wagtails are sometimes placed in the same phylogenetic clade together with Citrine Wagtail, and indeed share some morphological features.

DNA cladogram of several wagtail taxa, from Odeen, A., and Björklund, M. (2003). Dynamics in the evolution of sexual traits: Losses and gains, radiation and convergence in yellow wagtails (Motacilla flava). Molecular Ecology 12: 2113-2130.

DNA cladogram of several wagtail taxa, from: Odeen, A., and Björklund, M. (2003). Dynamics in the evolution of sexual traits: Losses and gains, radiation and convergence in yellow wagtails (Motacilla flava). Molecular Ecology 12: 2113-2130.

The call of Eastern Yellow Wagtail is close to the call of Citrine Wagtail, but not quite there with regard to high pitch and rasp.  Western Yellow Wagtail calls can be divided into two groups – sweet calls of western taxa (e.g. flavissima, flava) and rasping call of east European taxa (e.g. feldegg). I didn’t obtain a proper sound recording of the Scilly bird, but in this rather atmospheric video by Will Scott the diagnostic call can be heard at 0:06 (put your headphones on!).

Compared to Western Yellow, both Eastern Yellow and Citrine show more extensive white tips to greater and median coverts, creating two bolder white wingbars, and more white on tertial fringes.

Eastern Yellow Wagtail, Lower Moors, St. Mary's, Isles of Scilly, October 2016. Photo by Steve Young https://birdsonfilm.smugmug.com/

Eastern Yellow Wagtail, Lower Moors, St. Mary’s, Isles of Scilly, October 2016. Photo by Steve Young https://birdsonfilm.smugmug.com/

Though rarely 1st-winter Citrine Wagtails show incomplete ear coverts surround, Eastern Yellow Wagtail can be readily identified by wholly or predominately dark ear coverts, narrower supercilium, and pale base to lower mandible, just about visible here in this brighter photo, where some faint yellow and green hues can be seen:

Eastern Yellow Wagtail, Lower Moors, St. Mary's, Isles of Scilly, October 2016. Photo by Kris Webb.

Eastern Yellow Wagtail, Lower Moors, St. Mary’s, Isles of Scilly, October 2016. Photo by Kris Webb.

1st-winter Citrine Wagtail for comparison:

Citrine Wagtail, 1st-winter, Ashdod, Israel, 16 September 2013. Photo by Yoav Perlman.

Citrine Wagtail, 1st-winter, Ashdod, Israel, 16 September 2013. Photo by Yoav Perlman.

Citrine and Eastern Yellow Wagtails also share a long hind-claw, longer than in Western Yellow. So if you see a wagtail with a hind-claw as long as this it might come from the east:

Eastern Yellow Wagtail, Lower Moors, St. Mary's, Isles of Scilly, October 2016. Photo by Steve Young https://birdsonfilm.smugmug.com/

Eastern Yellow Wagtail, Lower Moors, St. Mary’s, Isles of Scilly, October 2016. Photo by Steve Young https://birdsonfilm.smugmug.com/

Eastern Yellow Wagtail, Lower Moors, St. Mary's, Isles of Scilly, October 2016. Photo by Steve Young https://birdsonfilm.smugmug.com/

Eastern Yellow Wagtail, Lower Moors, St. Mary’s, Isles of Scilly, October 2016. Photo by Steve Young https://birdsonfilm.smugmug.com/

Eastern Yellow Wagtail, Lower Moors, St. Mary's, Isles of Scilly, October 2016. Photo by Steve Young https://birdsonfilm.smugmug.com/

Eastern Yellow Wagtail, Lower Moors, St. Mary’s, Isles of Scilly, October 2016. Photo by Steve Young https://birdsonfilm.smugmug.com/

Eastern Yellow Wagtail, Lower Moors, St. Mary's, Isles of Scilly, October 2016. Photo by Simon Knight http://simonknightphotography.zenfolio.com/

Eastern Yellow Wagtail, Lower Moors, St. Mary’s, Isles of Scilly, October 2016. Photo by Simon Knight http://simonknightphotography.zenfolio.com/

Eastern Yellow Wagtail, Lower Moors, St. Mary's, Isles of Scilly, October 2016. Photo by Simon Knight http://simonknightphotography.zenfolio.com/

Eastern Yellow Wagtail, Lower Moors, St. Mary’s, Isles of Scilly, October 2016. Photo by Simon Knight http://simonknightphotography.zenfolio.com/

Eastern Yellow Wagtail, Lower Moors, St. Mary's, Isles of Scilly, October 2016. Photo by Simon Knight http://simonknightphotography.zenfolio.com/

Eastern Yellow Wagtail, Lower Moors, St. Mary’s, Isles of Scilly, October 2016. Photo by Simon Knight http://simonknightphotography.zenfolio.com/

Many thanks again to Nigel Hudson and Will Scott who helped me with information and contacts; and to photographers Simon Knight, Steve Young and Kris Webb – they all have stunning images of lots of cool birds, check their websites!

Desert Lesser Whitethroat @ Filey International

By Mark Pearson and Yoav Perlman

As in every autumn in recent years, reports of eastern taxa Lesser Whitethroats were rather frequent in recent weeks, mainly along the E coast and N Isles. Several were trapped and DNA samples obtained for ID confirmation. Very often they are first picked up by the ‘trrrrr’ call. It seems that almost every Lesser Whitethroat on the east coast in October has a good potential to be of an eastern origin. One of those that stood out was a very striking individual at Filey on October 17th by Mark Pearson – striking by being such a plain, brown job, that fits well with what would be expected from Desert Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca halimodendri. Not really stop press anymore, but to my eyes worth a mention. Siberian (S. c. blythi) and Desert Lesser Whitethroats were always Martin’s favourite, featuring in many posts (e.g. here and here) and in Martin’s Challenge Series: Autumn book too. In the previous posts the taxonomic position of this taxon is discussed (and always good to redirect to this important paper that clarifies the taxonomy of Lesser Whitethroats). I think that now, with current developments in taxonomy and field birding, classic individuals like this can be readily identified in the field.

 

Handing over to Mark now:

Flushing a small, sandy warbler with strikingly white outer-tail feathers from a field edge just a few metres from the clifftop, especially in the midst of long-term easterlies (delivering Asian waifs to the east coast) couldn’t help but the raise the alarm bells, and from there on it was cat-and-mouse along the nearest hedgerow. Long periods of staring blankly into the hawthorn were followed by intermittently close views as the bird materialised seemingly out of nowhere several times.

Having had several strong candidates for Siberian blythi here over the last few years – including a striking bird a couple of weeks earlier nearby (which not only fitted the visual, but also gave the rattle call) – this bird was clearly something very different. Trying to remember conversations with Martin as well as the features described in the Autumn: Frontiers book were at least partially successful and I roughly recalled the basics (including tail pattern), and after prolonged observations, all were apparently present and correct.

Small-bodied, large-headed, short-billed, short-winged, ‘cute’ appearance; poorly defined weak mask, suffused with brown:

Desert Lesser Whitethroat, Filey, North Yorkshire, 17 October 2016. Photo by Mark Pearson

Desert Lesser Whitethroat, Filey, North Yorkshire, 17 October 2016. Photo by Mark Pearson

Sandy brown upperparts, extending concolourously not only over the nape, but all the way across the crown to the base of the bill:

Desert Lesser Whitethroat, Filey, North Yorkshire, 17 October 2016. Photo by Mark Pearson

Desert Lesser Whitethroat, Filey, North Yorkshire, 17 October 2016. Photo by Mark Pearson

Desert Lesser Whitethroat, Filey, North Yorkshire, 17 October 2016. Photo by Mark Pearson

Desert Lesser Whitethroat, Filey, North Yorkshire, 17 October 2016. Photo by Mark Pearson

Noticeably long tail, often cocked

Desert Lesser Whitethroat, Filey, North Yorkshire, 17 October 2016. Photo by Mark Pearson

Desert Lesser Whitethroat, Filey, North Yorkshire, 17 October 2016. Photo by Mark Pearson

Entirely white outer web of T6, and extensive white tips on at least T5 and T4

Desert Lesser Whitethroat, Filey, North Yorkshire, 17 October 2016. Photo by Mark Pearson

Desert Lesser Whitethroat, Filey, North Yorkshire, 17 October 2016. Photo by Mark Pearson

Field sketch of Desert Lesser Whitethroat tail pattern, Filey, North Yorkshire, 17 October 2016, by Mark Pearson

Field sketch of Desert Lesser Whitethroat tail pattern, Filey, North Yorkshire, 17 October 2016, by Mark Pearson

Taking into account the fact that photos of Lesser Whitethroats can often be misleading, particularly regarding the extent and exact shade of subtle plumage tones in different lights, it’s worth pointing out that those which capture this bird’s tones were taken in flat, dull light (and not in bright or sunny conditions that can often ‘over-saturate’ these features); observations fully supported this, to the point that it was almost hard to believe the bird was actually a Lesser Whitethroat at times.

While the assessment criteria of field records of vagrant Desert Lesser Whitethroats is still apparently developing (and my knowledge is limited to say the least), on current understanding and by process of elimination – plumage, proportions, tail pattern etc. – it seems difficult to seriously consider anything else…. thoughts very welcome.

 

Another small comment by YP:

Ageing the bird is possible from these images. PC are worn and brown-fringed (see 2nd image from top), which is typical for young birds. Adult would have broader, fresher, grey-fringed PC. This bird has moulted most of its tail – two central TF pairs are unmoulted, and outer 4 pairs are replaced or growing. This partial moult is also typical for young birds. The central tail feathers are exteremely worn, pointed and brown. The newly grown outer TF have broad and white tips rather than limited off-white tips that are typical for unreplaced young outer TF (see here for demonstration of this).

Replaced adult-type TF typically have more extensive white tips to TF, and more TF with white tips than juvenile-type TF. This complicates the understanding whether a bird has ‘much white’ or ‘little white’. For this, ageing the bird and the TF correctly is essentail. The extreme amount of white shown by the Filey bird is more than any adult-type TF of curruca and blythi can show.

new-doc-6_2

First year Hudsonian Dunlin

By Guillermo Rodríguez

Hudsonian Dunlin (C a hudsonia) records have been claimed several times in the UK & other countries in Europe, usually adults in mostly summer plumage in late spring and summer, when the pale head and bright back of Hudsonian is quite different from European birds (but, on the other hand, is difficult to separate from several Pacific taxa). However, Hudsonian Dunlin also differs from Dunlins that occur regularly in Europe (alpina/schinzii/arctica) in juvenile/first-winter plumage, when the likelihood of a vagrant is perhaps higher. Dunlins arrive in good numbers to the east coast of the United States in late September, only slightly later than Baird’s Sandpiper and American Golden Plover.

After careful study of a few hundred first-winter birds, I think some of the features typically shown by Hudsonian are relatively rare in European birds, and their combination on a prototypical individual might indicate a nearctic origin.

Moult: probably the most obvious and eye-catching difference at first glance (in September/early October) is that the birds arrive from the breeding grounds already in a remarkably advanced moult. Most birds have moulted head, breast, and most of the back feathers; the belly, rump and wing coverts are usually moulted slightly later. For instance, all 9 first-year birds seen in Massachusetts on September 24th were in moulted plumage; only one out of 76 was still in mainly juvenile plumage on October 1st; and only 3 out of 54 seen on October 8th showed partially (but still fairly advanced) juvenile plumage. Thus, the proportion of birds arriving with retained juvenile plumage may be well below 5%. At this time of year, most first-year Dunlins in Europe have some replaced scapulars, but usually not most of them and rarely if ever show a complete winter plumage overall (ie also including head, mantle and breast). Some Hudsonian Dunlins leave some back and rump feathers unmoulted until the late autumn and winter, showing a characteristic line of conspicuous rufous-fringed scapulars contrasting with the moulted greyer feathers, reminding in some way first-year Western Sandpiper.

Bill shape: Hudsonian Dunlins on the East Coast present limited variability in bill shape and length, at least compared to Dunlin taxa in other parts of the world. Most Hudsonians have a long bill, which curves down at the end, somewhat similar to Curlew Sandpiper. Some birds also show a sort of ‘drop’ at the bill tip. Even in the shortest-billed birds the bill shape is characteristic, and considerably different from the majority of Dunlins in Europe (although, obviously, European birds sometimes show similar bills).

Facial pattern: many Hudsonians present a characteristic facial expression: the brow is usually broad, and ends sharply just beyond the eye; in some birds there is a conspicuous pale area in front of the eye. The cap and nape are roughly concolorous, and thus more contrasting with the supercilium. In European Dunlins, the nape tends to be paler and so the supercilium seems to “merge” with it, contrasting with a slightly darker cap. As a useful comparison, these differences are reminiscent of the differences in facial pattern between juvenile Western and Semipalmated Sandpipers (with Hudsonian being more similar to Western).

Breast and flanks patterning: this feature has been considered as diagnostic in the past. Once they have moulted into winter plumage (but generally not in juvenile plumage!), around 70% of birds present sparse short streaks on the flanks of the underparts, beginning at the breast and sometimes reaching as far as the undertail. In most of these birds, the dirty grey patch on the breast partially extends towards the belly along the flanks. In most European birds, the underparts are neatly white, but some exceptional birds might show a similar streaked pattern to Hudsonian.

Some examples illustrating the variability of first year Hudsonian Dunlins.

1

Hudsonian Dunlin, first year, September 21, 2016. Massachusetts. Guillermo Rodríguez.

2

Hudsonian Dunlin, first year, September 24, 2016. Massachusetts. Guillermo Rodríguez.

3

Hudsonian Dunlin, first year, October 8, 2016. Massachusetts. Guillermo Rodríguez.

4

Hudsonian Dunlin, first year, October 8, 2016. Massachusetts. Guillermo Rodríguez.

Even in the shortest-billed individuals the bill drops down at the tip. Note also the characteristic pattern of the supercilium.

5

Hudsonian Dunlin, first year, October 8, 2016. Massachusetts. Guillermo Rodríguez.

6

Hudsonian Dunlin, first year, October 8, 2016. Massachusetts. Guillermo Rodríguez.

9

Hudsonian Dunlin, first year, October 8, 2016. Massachusetts. Guillermo Rodríguez.

8

Hudsonian Dunlins, October 8, 2016. Massachusetts. Guillermo Rodríguez.

Note the similar bill shape and size in most individuals. Variability is relatively limited in the East Coast!

For comparison, look at this typical Dunlin from N Spain, still in mainly juvenile plumage in September:

european_dunlin_1

Dunlin, first year, Galicia, N Spain, September 15. Photographer: Pablo Gutierrez.

and a slightly more advanced bird (October), with extensive replacement on mantle and scapulars but still retaining juvenile head and breast feathers.

european_dunlin_2

Dunlin, first year, Galicia, N Spain, October 3. Photographer: Pablo Gutierrez.

Finally, check out this individual from the Canary Islands, identified as a (potential) Hudsonian on grounds of the flank streaking. The Spanish RC studied and eventually rejected this record. I think the bill does not look particularly good and the breast is too neat for Hudsonian, but undoubtedly a difficult bird!

Another Red-necked Stint – in Iceland!

By Yoav Perlman

Just a few weeks ago, before we all became obsessed with fancy Dunnocks, a 1cy Red-necked Stint was amazingly discovered in Norway, the first live individual identified in Europe. I am really glad that this individual sparked interest and attention in the birding community, that resulted in the next individual found, this time in Iceland. Somewhat similar story to the Norwegian find:

On October 13th one of Iceland’s top birders Gunnar Þór (Thor) Hallgrímsson went birding on his way back home at Bakkatjorn on the outskirts of Reykjavík. He spotted an interesting peep that attracted his attention. Gunnar had only bins with him, and no camera, so his views weren’t great. Based on what he expected for the time and place he identified it as the ‘default’ for this part of Europe in autumn – Semipalmated Sandpiper, as it clearly wasn’t a Little Stint nor a Western Sand. Gunnar headed back home, grabbed his camera and focused on getting some shots of the bird. He promptly alerted several local birders and sent this back-of-camera photo:

Red-necked Stint 1cy, Bakkatjorn, Reykjavík, Iceland, 13 October 2016. Photo by Gunnar Thor Hallgrímsson.

Red-necked Stint 1cy, Bakkatjorn, Reykjavík, Iceland, 13 October 2016. Photo by Gunnar Thor Hallgrímsson.

All birders who saw the first image felt something was not right for semi-p. Yann Kolbeinson from Birding Iceland immediately thought the bird could in fact be a Red-necked Stint. An initial identification discussion among the small group of local birders began. Yann quickly replied to Gunnar by text: “Please tell me you can see webs between its toes…”. Gunnar’s heart skipped a heartbeat. A few minutes later Gunnar sent through the next photo:

Red-necked Stint 1cy, Bakkatjorn, Reykjavík, Iceland, 13 October 2016. Photo by Gunnar Thor Hallgrímsson.

Red-necked Stint 1cy, Bakkatjorn, Reykjavík, Iceland, 13 October 2016. Photo by Gunnar Thor Hallgrímsson.

Obviously Yann’s jaw hit the floor. Luckily Yann had the images of the Norwegian Red-necked Stint still fresh in his mind, so he knew what to look for: the overall grey and plain appearance, small bill, long rear and round body, short legs – these features clicked. The Icelandic birders were somewhat worried about the dark ear coverts and seemingly darker markings on wing coverts, so back-of-camera images were sent to Killian Mullarney for his opinion. Killian replied quickly, and supported Red-necked Stint, but wanted to check the original images rather than back-of-camera to finalize the identification. Soon the original images were circulated and everyone agreed on the identification. Within a couple of hours after discovery, it was identified as Iceland’s first Red-necked Stint. Amazing!

Over the next few days it was seen by most Icelandic birders, including Yann who drove down from northern Iceland where he lives. As of today (18/10/16) it is still present. Here are some more photos of it. In my previous post I provided the full details for separation from Semi-p and Little Stint. Here I will just highlight the main features.

Note general structure. Long rear – like Norwegian bird primary tips not projecting beyond tail. Plump body and short legs:

Red-necked Stint 1cy, Bakkatjorn, Reykjavík, Iceland, 13 October 2016. Photo by Gunnar Þór Hallgrímsson.

Red-necked Stint 1cy, Bakkatjorn, Reykjavík, Iceland, 13 October 2016. Photo by Gunnar Þór Hallgrímsson.

Very grey and plain unmoulted coverts and lower scapulars. Coverts with hardly any pattern on them; scapulars with limited dark shaft streaks and limited dark tips:

Red-necked Stint 1cy, Bakkatjorn, Reykjavík, Iceland, 13 October 2016. Photo by Sigmundur Ásgeirsson

Red-necked Stint 1cy, Bakkatjorn, Reykjavík, Iceland, 13 October 2016. Photo by Gunnar Thor Hallgrimsson.

Red-necked Stint 1cy, Bakkatjorn, Reykjavík, Iceland, 13 October 2016. Photo by Gunnar Thor Hallgrimsson.

Generally unmarked mantle pattern with limited braces:

Red-necked Stint 1cy, Bakkatjorn, Reykjavík, Iceland, 13 October 2016. Photo by Gunnar Thor Hallgrímsson.

Red-necked Stint 1cy, Bakkatjorn, Reykjavík, Iceland, 13 October 2016. Photo by Gunnar Thor Hallgrímsson.

Tiny bill:

Red-necked Stint 1cy, Bakkatjorn, Reykjavík, Iceland, 14 October 2016. Photo by Yann Kolbeinsson.

Red-necked Stint 1cy, Bakkatjorn, Reykjavík, Iceland, 14 October 2016. Photo by Yann Kolbeinsson.

Nice grey smudge on breast sides with indistinct streaking:

Red-necked Stint 1cy, Bakkatjorn, Reykjavík, Iceland, 14 October 2016. Photo by Yann Kolbeinsson.

Red-necked Stint 1cy, Bakkatjorn, Reykjavík, Iceland, 14 October 2016. Photo by Yann Kolbeinsson.

Originally I had a quick look and speculated that the icelandic bird might be the same individual as the Norwegian bird. However, Killian Mullarney did a much more thorough job than me, and they clearly are different individuals, based on differences in state of moult of scapulars and mantle feathers, and position of primary tips comapred to tail. Many thnaks to Killian for allowing me to use his annotated comparisons between the two birds:

Annotated comparison of Red-necked Stints from Norway (top, photo by Trond Ove Stakkeland) and Iceland (bottom, photo by Yann Kolbeinson). Created by Killian Mullarney.

Annotated comparison of Red-necked Stints from Norway (top, photo by Trond Ove Stakkeland) and Iceland (bottom, photo by Yann Kolbeinson). Created by Killian Mullarney.

Annotated comparison of Red-necked Stints from Norway (top, photo by Trond Ove Stakkeland) and Iceland (bottom, photo by Yann Kolbeinson). Created by Killian Mullarney.

Annotated comparison of Red-necked Stints from Norway (top, photo by Trond Ove Stakkeland) and Iceland (bottom, photo by Yann Kolbeinson). Created by Killian Mullarney.

Many thanks to Gunnar, Yann, Sigmundur and Killian for the information and photos, and congratulations for such an excellent find and identification process. Surely there are more lurking somewhere in Europe. Keep your eyes open boys and girls – now you know what to look for.